The programming world is vast and filled with numerous languages. Currently, there are about 700 programming languages including esoteric languages. While some languages have gained the force of recognition over time, others are still in the growth stage and gradually gaining momentum. As a newbie programmer, the likelihood of getting confused while choosing a language best suited for you is high.
Below, we have put together a list of the top 7 programming languages to look out for in 2023, and we intend to take you on a voyage of what they entail; their merits and demerits, and the best places you can visit should you choose to add any to your laurels. This list was compiled with the help of the article – Best Object-Oriented Programming Languages to Learn on Science Times. Let’s get started, shall we?
Java is easily one of the most popular programming languages developers use in various industries. It was developed in the 1990s by James Gosling and his colleagues at Sun microsystems. James Gosling initially created Java as a project and designated it as “Oak” in June 1991. Gosling’s objectives were to create a virtual machine and a language similar to C++ but with more homogeneity and simplicity than C++.
In its simplicity, Java is a general-purpose, object-focused programming language based on classes with fewer required specifications. It is a computer platform for the development of applications. Due to its reputation of being swift, reliable, and results-driven, it is the go-to programming language for developing applications in mobile phones, game consoles, laptops, high-end scientific computers, etc.
If you wonder why Java made it to the top of the list, then sit tight while we quickly peruse through its advantages and disadvantages.
Advantages of Java
Java is Object-focused
Java is designed to allow you to use compatible programs and codes that are generatable.
Java is Platform-agnostic
Java’s potential to shift quickly from one computer system to another is one of its most significant advantages. The potential to manage the same program on various platforms is critical for Web software, and Java achieves this by being platform-agnostic at both the origin and binary tiers.
Excellent Multithreading Implementation
Java employs a multi-threaded environment in which a larger action can be partitioned into many threads and executed independently.
Java language is quite straightforward to learn and understand.
Notwithstanding the popular belief about the java language, its codes are quite lengthy, making it difficult to read and comprehend.
Absence of machine interoperability
Another prominent disadvantage of Java is its inability to interact with machines. The java programming language is not an interactive language, and as such, it makes machines less viable for the software.
Its larger processing and memory capacity requirement is quite on the high side compared to other programming languages. It also requires high-end hardware systems, making it expensive and unsuitable for complex programming.
Where to learn?
- CodeGym Java Tutorial
Rust is an open-source project that started as a research project at Mozilla. It debuted in 2010 and was designed by Graydon Hoare, with Dave Herman, Brendan Eich, and other colleagues. Rust is an unvarying-written programming language that emphasizes performance and safety, particularly in concurrency and storage organization. It has a syntax that is comparable to C++.
Rust addresses two issues that C/C++ programmers have long grappled with: memory errors and synchronous programming. There are two ways to write code in Rust: Risk Free Rust and Risky Rust. Riskfree Rust puts extra constraints on the programmer (for example, object ownership management), guaranteeing that the code produces an excellent outcome.
Risky Rust allows the programmer more latitude (it may work with raw C-like pointers, for example). However, there is a possibility that the code may break. But then, there are more possibilities available in the risky Rust mode, but you must take more precautions to guarantee the safety of your code. Rust offers more reliability than the programming language(such as C++) from which it was birthed. It places a greater emphasis on stability and memory safety.
Advantages of Rust
Reliable Memory Management System
The memory management system in Rust is quite good. It allocates a single owner to each piece of memory and specifies who has access to it. It also guarantees multi-threaded code, allowing software to execute on numerous CPUs.
Rust Codes are Reusable
Rust accomplishes this by using modules that other modules can access. Rust Also offers a large number of data types.
Rust is a functional, unvarying-written, and computer programming language that can run on various platforms.
Steep Learning Curve
Learning Rust isn’t easy, and it necessitates a solid understanding of C++ or another object-focused language. Because Rust is a system programming language, even basic tasks may necessitate a great deal of knowledge and application of many syntaxes.
Rust is fast, but it compiles code slightly slower than other languages compiler. However, its sluggishness results from its “unit of compilation” being an entire package rather than a single file.
You may find it difficult to write Rust codes as quickly as possible in other programming languages like Python or Perl.
Where to learn?
If you are intrigued with learning Rust, we have added a few platforms below to help you get started on your journey.
- Rust Fundamentals by Pluralsight.
- Learn Rust from Scratch by Educative.
- Rust Programming Language for Beginners by Udemy.
Python is a translated, object-focused, and elevated dynamically structured programming language. Its elevated built-in data structures, together with dynamic typing and dynamic binding, affords it an edge in Rapid Application Development and as coding or liaison language for connecting existing components. Python’s concise, incredibly simple syntax prioritizes readability, lowering software maintenance costs. Python facilitates program flexibility and code re-use by enabling modules and packages. Earning it a seat at the table of the most promising programming languages in 2023.
If you want to know more about the intricacies of Python, sit tight while I take you through the good and the bad sides of the Python language.
Advantages of Python
For newbie programmers, Python is easy to comprehend and apply. The reason for this is not unconnected to the similarity its elevated programming language syntax shares with English.
Python is a very efficient language. Its simplicity allows programmers to focus on resolving problems with the language. Users do not have to spend hours learning programming language, resulting in more tasks being done.
Because this language is so versatile, it allows users to try new things. The Python programming language allows users to create novel types of applications. The user is not limited from creating something new because of the language.
Not fast enough
Python’s poor pace is due to its dynamic nature, which requires it to perform additional work while executing code. As a result, Python isn’t recommended for projects where speed is critical.
Python is designed to tradeoff an aspect of its structure to provide programmers with the needed simplicity. The Python programming language consumes a lot of RAM. As a result, it is not the best bet for application-based tasks that require memory optimization.
Access to the Database
Although Python programming is quite straightforward and uncomplicated, it is unsuitable in situations requiring interacting with the database.
Also, when placed side by side with major technologies like JDBC and ODBC, Python’s database access layer is rudimentary and immature.
Where to Learn?
If the Python language caught your attention, then here are a few platforms to get all the resources you need to bag that language.
- Learn Python the Hard Way
- Invent With Python
Now you know what Kotlin is, let’s take a cursory look at its merit and demerits, shall we?
Advantages of Kotlin
Increases your Productivity
Kotlin is a Java-inspired programming language. Java’s shortcomings are readily overcome with Kotlin. Because it takes a relatively shorter time frame to write and implement, Kotlin can greatly boost the effectiveness of a developer’s team.
Compatibility with Current Java Code
Kotlin and Java code is compatible. With Java and a slew of additional paradigms and technologies, Kotlin has a stronghold. As a result, transitioning to Kotlin is a lot easier. Where it is impossible to write a particular product entirely on Kotlin, you may utilize the other, and the two can comfortably coexist.
There are many programming languages to satisfy your cravings, but Kotlin is one of the most advanced programming languages out there. In 2011, Kotlin made its big-screen debut and had gone through multiple Beta and Alfa phases since its debut before being released in its final form.
Disadvantages of Kotlin
Not the same with Java
Notwithstanding the obvious similarities between Kotlin and Java, they possess some intricate differences. For instance, application developers with a rudimentary knowledge of Java but not enough knowledge of Kotlin may find it hard to switch between both languages.
When it comes to incremental builds, Kotlin can be faster than Java in some circumstances. But it’s worth remembering that when it comes to clean building, Java will always be superior.
Limited Learning Resources
Kotlin has recorded significant growth in its user base; however, there is a small developer community to learn from or solve problems with during the development process.
Where to Learn?
Want to try out Kotlin Language, here are a few platforms to help you:
- The Kotlin website
- Reddit: Learn Kotlin while developing an Android App
- Video tutorial by Peter Summerhoff
Go or Golang
In 2007, Google created the Go programming language out of the necessity to meet its growing business. As a result, they decided that a new programming language focused on simplicity and speed was required. Go was created by Robert Griesemer, Rob Pike, and Ken Thompson to meet that need.
Go is an open-source programming language that aims to be simple, dependable, and efficient.
Go became an open-source project in 2012 after it was made available to the public. It grew in popularity quickly and is now one of the most widely used modern programming languages.
Go was designed from the ground up for networking and infrastructure-related applications. It was designed to take the place of popular server-side languages like Java and C++. Go is now utilized in a wide range of applications.
Advantages of Go/Golang
Simple Programming Language
Go is a simple game to pick up and understand. The entire Go specification can be read and assimilated within a very short time. It also accommodates a chunk of features peculiar to other languages, such as inheritance, overloading, object, etc.
When it comes to performance, Go is amazing. It was created for large-scale automation, thus making it easy to code high-performance apps.
Support for Concurrency
Perhaps this is GoLang’s most lauded functionality. Since its inception, it has supported concurrency. It can fully use multi-core functionality. GoLang accomplishes concurrency by using goroutines, and it has a highly effective goroutine management architecture that makes it simple to generate millions of goroutines. The stack utilization may also dynamically expand/shrink, making memory consumption more adaptive.
Disadvantages of Go/Golang
Imperfect Error Handling
If an error is expected, Go programs need functions to return an error. And this may result in a scenario where the error’s track is lost, resulting in the loss of important error handling reasoning. “Errcheck” and “megacheck” are two tools that can help discover this type of error. However, they are more of a workaround. Also, to check for errors and address them, programmers must write a lot of “if blocks,” which makes the code less clean.
Poor Package Management
Go’s package handling isn’t flawless either. It cannot generate a dependency tree with a fixed package version by configuration, which connotes that different versions of packages may be used while building at different times.
Absence of a Library
It’s still tough for developers to utilize its libraries fully. There isn’t a lot of help when it comes to developing software with this language. There is no online or library help for developers in case of a question.
Where to learn?
- The Go Tour website
- Go By Example
- The Go Bootcamp online book.
C++ is an object-focused programming language developed by renowned computer scientist Bjorne Stroustrup as an aspect of the C family of languages’ growth. It was created as a cross-platform enhancement to C, specifically to allow programmers to manage memory and system resources more.
C++ is known as “C with Classes” since it adds object-focused programming techniques to the C programming language foundation, along with the usage of specified classes. C++ has shown to be a valuable language for computer programming and instructing newbie programmers how to utilize object-focused programming.
Furthermore, it enables object-focused programming and procedural and functional programming. You can also use C++ to construct software because of its great flexibility and scalability.
Advantages of C/C++
The top-tier merit of C++ is object-focused programming, which encompasses features such as classes, inheritance, polymorphism, data abstraction, and encapsulation. These features make code reuse possible and improve the trustworthiness of a program.
C++ provides the programmer with full autonomy over memory management. However, this feature appears to be both a merit and a bottleneck, as it imposes more obligation on the user to handle memory rather than the garbage collector. C++ accomplishes this task by utilizing pointers and DMA.
Runs close to the System Hardware
C++ is more closely related to hardware than other programming languages such as Python, Java, etc. Thus making it beneficial in situations where software is tightly connected with hardware and low-level software assistance is required.
Disadvantages of C/C++
Absence of Garbage Collector
C++ increases the burden of programmers as it allows control over computer memory management via DMA. that is to say, a garbage collector is not available in C++ to automatically filter away superfluous data. As such, programmers need to manage memory intentionally.
Lack of a Built-in Thread
There are no threads built into C++. Threads are a relatively new notion in C++ that wasn’t there at first. C++ now can sustain lambda functions.
C++’s biggest downside is that it is difficult to master. It can take ages to comprehend if you are new to coding and not conversant with other object-focused programming languages.
Where to Learn?
- C Programming by LearnVern
- C++ For C Programmers by Coursera
- C Programming For Beginners by Udemy
- C++ Tutorial for Complete Beginners by Udemy
Advantages of TypeScript
Enjoys the Patronage of Big boys in the Industry
And that is not all! TypeScript also enjoys the patronage of tech juggernauts like Microsoft, eBay, and Ubisoft.
Precise Defining through Typing
If a programmer incurs a mistake and puts unsupported data into the code, he gets notified first before committing the work to the repository. And that is not all! In the unlikely event that the programmer disregards the error, CI/CD systems such as Jenkins may verify types to ensure such mistakes do not find their way into production.
Also, It’s a lot simpler to maintain your code using types when you can detect these obvious but commonly recurring issues early on.
Cross-platform and Cross-browser Interoperability
The TypeScript compiler is usually included in integrated development environments (IDEs) and editors that support TypeScript (TSC). As a result, typeScript makes it possible to convert a part of the code foundation or the entire program at once.
Disadvantages of Typescript
A System of Typing that is Far too Difficult
Where to learn?
Not sure of where and how to kickstart your career with TypeScript? Start here:
- Introduction to TypeScript Development by Udemy.
- TypeScript Fundamentals by Pluralsight.
- Learn TypeScript: The Complete Course for Beginners by Educative.
If you are yet to get started on your programming journey, or you are still a newbie trying to find a foothold in the vast programming space, now you know better. You can choose which programming language suits your individual needs and purposes with the above information. Also, don’t forget to try out your hands on some programming task by enrolling.